Hemorrhoids are actually veins that have become swollen or engorged with blood. They are located in and around the rectum. Hemorrhoids can be either internal or external. External hemorrhoids are found outside of the anus, while internal ones are located just inside the anus and further up into the rectum. Hemorrhoids can have several causes. Pregnant women often get hemorrhoids due to the pressure of the baby on the pelvic region. Hemorrhoids can also be caused by straining to have a bowel movement. Pushing forcefully can actually cause the veins near the anus to bulge and eventually protrude from the anus.
Mild cases of hemorrhoids will often go away on their own. If the hemorrhoids remain or continue to worsen, medicines may be prescribed to shrink them. Small incisions can be made to allow the blood to drain and the hemorrhoid to shrink. Once the vein is back to its normal size, it will eventually return to its original position. For hemorrhoids that are larger than normal and blocking the anus, surgery may need to be required to remove them. This can mean cauterizing the veins or removing the injured area and re-attaching the ends. There are also many home remedies that can be effective at controlling hemorrhoids and reducing the discomfort they cause.
Many hemorrhoids need no treatment whatsoever. Small hemorrhoids will often shrink and go away on their own. Larger hemorrhoids that do not go away or shrink on their own may need to be treated. If they are not treated in a timely fashion, they may become engorged. When this occurs, they become so full of blood that they may not be able to shrink on their own. If they are not treated at this point, they may begin to block the anus and prevent the person from having a bowel movement. It can make the area very difficult to clean which can lead to an infection if the hemorrhoids rupture or begin to form lesions.